Damage is a broad term that refers to anything that lowers the health of the player, an NPC, and/or a creature.
 Environmental Damage
Environmental Damage refers to damage caused by the environment, such as falling and drowning.
 Falling Damage
Falling from a high place can damage your health or kill you. By default, the amount of damage caused by falling is calculated as:
Player falling damage = ((height - 600) * 0.1)1.45 * modifiers
The internal height units are 64 per yard. The second story of a house is about 4 yards up. The graph shows falling damage (without the perk) by height in yards.
A fall of up about 9 yards or less will not hurt you; however, the range of heights from which falling will hurt but not kill you is fairly narrow. In general, falling more than three stories is potentially fatal. Falling damage can be avoided by landing in moderately deep water or by using the Become Ethereal shout before falling.
NPCs take more damage from falling than you do:
NPC falling damage = ((height - 450) * 0.1)1.65 * modifiers
Therefore, using Unrelenting Force and other attacks that may push enemies off a significant height can be an effective method of attack.
The formulae given above are based on default settings. The formula using the actual game settings is as follows (adding "NPC" to the end of each setting name when dealing with NPCs):
falling damage = ((height - fJumpFallHeightMin) * fJumpFallHeightMult)fJumpFallHeightExponent * modifiers
If you remain submerged in water for 20 seconds you will begin taking damage at a rate of about 20 damage per second until you surface again for air. This can be avoided by using a potion or enchanted item with the Waterbreathing effect.
NPCs cannot drown, as they do not remain submerged underwater long enough to take damage. [verification needed — see]
 Physical Damage
Combat damage refers to damage caused directly by either the player, an NPC, or creature.
 Power Attacks
Power attacks can be used to deal extra damage or be more effective against an opponent who is blocking. They are performed by holding down, instead of tapping, the attack button. A power attack has a chance of staggering its target and consumes Stamina according to the following formula.
power attack stamina cost = (40 + weapon weight * 2) * attack cost multiplier * (1 - perk effect)
The amount of Stamina available when you execute a power attack and the amount of Stamina consumed by the attack do not influence how much damage is dealt. However, if you do not have enough stamina to perform a power attack, the stamina bar will flash green and you will perform a regular attack instead.
You can perform several kinds of power attacks depending on which movement control you press as you attack and what weapon you are using. If you push the forward input while performing a power attack, you will execute a dash strike, useful to close distance quickly. Moving backwards will cause you to step back and then strike, useful for avoiding and countering enemy attacks. Left and right inputs can be used to sidestep enemy attacks, and with the Sweep perk, a left or right power attack can strike all enemies in a forward arc when using a two-handed weapon. If you are dual wielding, holding down both the left and right attack buttons at the same time results in fast, a three-hit power attack that attacks with both weapons. If you are using only your fists, you will perform a similar three punch strike when the same input is used. Both of these attacks count as three separate power attacks and will consume Stamina accordingly.
|Attack Type||Damage||Stagger||Stamina Use|
|Dual-Wield (x3 attacks)||x1.5||x1||x0.5|
 Critical Strikes
A critical strike provides extra damage upon a successful blow. All weapons except staves can strike a critical with the right perks. Sneak attacks and critical strikes are counted separately. A critical strike is calculated from the base damage of a weapon. The weapons page lists each weapon's base damage value. Smithing, skill points, enchantments and power attacks do not modify the extra damage dealt. A sprinting power attack with the Critical Charge or Great Critical Charge perk performs a regular power attack + a double critical strike. A double critical strike inflicts twice the amount of extra damage that a critical strike with a two-handed sword with Deep Wounds Rank 1 inflicts, and a little more than twice (approximately 2.2 times) what a one-handed sword with Bladesman Rank 1 inflicts. Simply put, a weapon gets its base damage as extra damage when it scores a double critical strike.
A two-handed weapon with a base damage of 20 does 10 extra points of damage with 1 rank of Deep Wounds, 12.5 with 2, 18.75 with 3, and 20 when performing a sprinting power attack with Great Critical Charge.
 Difficulty Level
There are 5 difficulty settings, accessible from the Journal (Journal > System > Settings > Gameplay): Novice (very easy), Apprentice (easy), Adept (normal), Expert (hard), and Master (very hard). Patch 1.9 adds a sixth difficulty level: Legendary. Easier settings cause your attacks to be more powerful and for attack damage dealt to you to be reduced while harder settings cause you to deal less damage with attacks and take more damage from incoming attacks. The only other effect it has on the game is on the health costs of the Equilibrium spell.
You can change the difficulty level at any time, even in the midst of combat. If you are struggling with a certain enemy or group of enemies, it is possible to adjust to an easier setting, kill the enemy, and then return to your previous difficulty.
|Difficulty||Player Damage Dealt||Player Damage Taken|
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Extra Damage is an NPC-only perk used by many leveled NPCs in Skyrim. There are multiple versions of the perk under the same name, although they all have the same effect—inflicting significantly more damage on the player than any other character. Some versions of this perk only work when attacking the player character, meaning that if the player does somehow manage to get the perk it won't do anything. It isn't known whether the other versions of the perk would work.
Reduced Damage and Reduce Damage are perks used by some NPCs in Skyrim. There are multiple versions of the perks, although they all have the same effect—reducing incoming attack damage by multiplying it by some factor smaller than one.